Diabetes Management Wiki: Get All The Info You Need For Controlling Diabetes
Diabetes whose scientific name is diabetes mellitus is usually classified as a form of disorder in the process of metabolism.
When we talk about metabolism, we refer to the way the body breaks down the food we eat into glucose.
This process is necessary for the daily energy and also growth of the body. When a person has diabetes, it means that either he has a blood sugar that is high or his body fails to generate enough insulin.
Alternatively a person could have diabetes because the body cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This results to so much glucose being retained in the blood stream.
For people with type 1 diabetes, it is common for them to lose weight even without making any attempt. This is because in type 1, the pancreas will stop producing any insulin perhaps due to an attack on the pancreas cells. This makes the body to search desperately for a source of energy as the body cells don’t have any glucose.
This makes the body to begin to metabolize the body fats and also tissues in order to get energy.
A common symptom of diabetes is weakness and a feeling of fatigue. This is usually caused by a lack of insulin in the body cells as it stays in the blood stream. This makes the cells to be starved of energy and therefore makes the body feels weak and fatigued. The person may also experience a feeling of numbness in the hand or even feet. This is usually the case in type 2 diabetes as people may not be aware that they have the disease. This makes the blood sugar to stay high for a few years before a diagnosis can be done.
This can cause nerve destruction to occur without the knowledge of the person.
Another common symptom of diabetes affects the vision. Due to the high blood sugar, fluids are pulled from the body tissues. These include in the lenses and this affects the ability of the person to focus. Also when left untreated, the disease can cause the formation of blood vessels in the retina. The disease can also cause the damage of the eye vessels.
Though in most cases this does not create a problem in the early stages, later it may even lead to blindness if left untreated
There are mainly two types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body fails to produce enough insulin. This raises the need for a person to keep on injecting insulin into the body stream. The disease may occur at any age and its exact cause is unknown. In most cases, the disease is diagnosed in children, teens and young adults. It is thought to be an autoimmune problem which can be passed down through families. Either due to some infections or triggers, the cells in the pancreas is attacked making them not to produce insulin.
Therefore type 1 diabetes is marked by glucose building up in the bloodstream rather than them getting into the cells.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. This is a lifelong chronic disease which is marked by a high level of glucose in the blood stream.
People with type 2 diabetes have their fat, muscle cells and liver not responding right to insulin. This is commonly known as insulin resistance.
Therefore these people have their blood sugar not getting into the cells to be kept for the production of energy. Where sugar is denied entry into the cells, there is a build up in the blood, a condition that is known as hyperglycemia. This type of diabetes happens slowly over time. When getting diagnosed, most individuals having the disease are usually overweight.
This is because it is harder for insulin to be used correctly where there is increased fat.
However this does not mean that diabetes cannot occur in people who are thin. It does occur especially in people who are elderly. One factor that has been noted to be a cause of type 2 diabetes is the family history and the genetic composition.
Also the lifestyle of the person plays a role. People who have a poor diet or exercise rarely have a higher risk of getting the disease.
Also people who have excess weight of the body around the wrist are at a higher risk of contracting the disease.
Gestational diabetes is usually diagnosed during pregnancies. It is usually caused by the pregnancy hormones blocking the insulin from doing its work.
This causes the glucose level to rise in the woman’s blood stream. There are people who are at a greater risk of this kind of diabetes.
These include those who get pregnant when they are aged twenty five and above. Also people whose families have a history of diabetes are at a greater risk of getting gestational diabetes.
The same case applies to people with a high blood pressure as well as those whose amniotic fluid is too much.
Women who are overweight before giving birth are also at a greater risk of the disease. The same case applies to those who have had miscarriages that are difficult to explain or even those who give birth to babies who have birth defects. If you are a woman and you give birth to a baby who weighs more than nine pounds, your risk of getting the gestational diabetes also increases. The disease in most cases starts when the pregnancy is in its midterm.
Therefore there is need for all women to undergo a test around the twenty fourth to the twenty eighth weeks of their pregnancies. For women who have risk factors for the disease, it is important for them to undergo the test earlier.
The disease can be managed well using a diabetes diet. This is a healthy eating plan that is aimed at controlling the blood sugar. The basic rule of this diet is sticking to a regular mealtime. Also the person should eat a variety of highly nutritious food in small amounts. The person who is suffering from the disease should engage in a healthy eating plan that emphasize on vegetables, wholegrain and fruits. The person should take more of the healthy carbohydrates. These include legumes such as beans, lentils and peas.
Some of the other foods that a diabetic person should take include foods that are rich in fibers. Some of these are nuts and vegetables. Whole wheat flour as well as wheat bran fall in this category. To cater for his protein need, the person can take fish at least twice a week. These are good alternative to the red meat.
Also there are some foods containing ‘good’ fat such as avocados, peanut oil which can help to lower the cholesterol level.
There are also some foods that a person suffering from the disease should avoid. These include saturated fat such as beef, margarine and any other cholesterol rich food.
Some of these foods which are rich in cholesterol include egg yolk, liver and any high fat dairy product. The person should also avoid sodium as much as possible.
When it occurs in children, it is known as juvenile diabetes. This is usually due to an environment triggers or even a virus which hampers the functioning of the beta cell.
This makes it impossible for the body to produce insulin. It has been noted that a child whose sibling have the condition is also likely to develop it more than those whose sibling do not suffer from it. In this condition pancreas does not carry out its role of producing the insulin and this makes the sugar to build up in the blood.
The sugar in fact overflows to the urine and is passed out of the body with urine before it can be used. To manage this condition better, it is important for a diet to be adjusted according to the individual child’s need.
Both types of diabetes share similar signs. This is usually because in both cases, the disease is marked by too much sugar in the blood stream and glucose that is not enough in the body cells. One of the common warning signs of diabetes involves frequent visit to the washrooms. A person with any kind of diabetes will keep on urinating all day long. This is usually caused by too much sugar in the blood stream. Where the insulin does not exist or tend to be ineffective, it becomes impossible for the kidneys to filter back the glucose into the bloodstream. This makes the kidney to try and get some more water from the blood in order to have the glucose diluted. This makes the bladder to stay full and makes the person to keep going to the washrooms.
Another common sign of diabetes is unquenchable thirst. Where you feel as if you can’t get enough of water, it is most likely a symptom of diabetes.
This is especially the case where it is accompanied by frequent urination. This is because a person usually gets dehydrated due to the need to replace the extra water that is being pulled out of the blood. This raises the need to replace this water.
There are other common sign and symptoms that you should look out for. These may include a skin that is itchy or even dry. Also the skin may become prone to infections. The skin also may get bruised more frequently and take time to heal. Therefore in conclusion, it is important for people who show the above signs and symptoms to go for tests so that the disease may be diagnosed early for easy management.