High Bilirubin Levels In Adults

Bilirubin is one of the byproduct processed by the liver as a waste. If the liver is not functioning appropriately, accumulation of the bilirubin may go to higher level in the body.

What causes high level of bilirubin in adults?


  • The failure of the liver
  • Infections of the gall bladder
  • Gilbert syndrome
  • Medications like pain killers, birth control pills and antibiotics.
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Blockage of bile ducts
  • Allergy of blood transfusion
  • Hepatitis
  • Sickle cell anemia




There are common symptoms exposed by high level of bilirubin in adults. These symptoms include; yellowing of eyes and the skin, fatigue, dark-colored urine, vomiting and nausea.


To diagnose, blood test is done in order to monitor its level in adults. Urinalysis is not the best method to test bilirubin levels, unless a patient has in one or another conjugated bilirubin.

Males have been found to have lower bilirubin levels compared to females. This research was done the American Association for Clinical Chemistry. It also found that African Americans have lower bilirubin levels compared to other races.


Before treatment is good to note that it is a natural byproduct which results from the breakdown of RBC-red blood cells. It is processed by liver then excreted in the same way like other body waste. Bilirubin is found in the blood but elevated levels will show that the liver is not functioning properly.

The treatment depends on the cause of the elevated bilirubin levels. It includes liver transplant and medical prescription.  Taking medical history is also important. It can assist in pinpointing the source of the increased levels, enabling easy treatment of the disorder.  For instance, the treatment of a person with an alcohol abuse history will be different to the one with no such history. A person with Gilbert’s Syndrome will not require much medical attention compared to the one in which their bile ducts have blocked. Medical conditions are known to increase the bilirubin level in the blood. It is good to avoid habit that may result to elevated bilirubin levels in your body such as drug and alcohol abuse.

How Much Sodium Should You Consume Per Day?

Sodium, unlike other minerals, has a distinct and appealing taste.
It is commonly found in table salt, which is 40% sodium.
The other portion of table salt is made of chloride.
Sodium plays a huge role in leading a healthy lifestyle.
People that don’t consume enough sodium in their diet on a daily basis won’t be able to maintain healthy fluid levels and it may have a negative impact on the way muscles is functioning.
On the other hand, a consumption of too much sodium every day will put you at risk for kidney disease, high blood pressure, and there is a chance that your body may even experience an inability to properly absorb the sodium you consume.

The recommended intake of sodium is 2000 mg per day.
Reducing your sodium intake can be easily achieved by eating less of the following foods:

  •      Salty and Smoke Fish (anchovies, caviar, dried fish, smoked salmon, sardines, herring)
  •      Snack/Junk Food (potato chips, pretzels, popcorn, salted nuts, crackers)
  •      Condiments (season salts, Worcestershire, soy, barbecue, ketchup, mustard, teriyaki, mustard)
  •      Cheese
  •      Salad Dressing
  •      Low-fat milk
  •      Soups (canned or instant)

You should also check the labels before purchasing canned items to make sure they do not contain added salt.
Look for organic, all-natural and salt-free options when buying vegetables and tomato sauces that are packaged.

Diabetes Management Wiki: Get All The Info You Need For Controlling Diabetes

Diabetes whose scientific name is diabetes mellitus is usually classified as a form of disorder in the process of metabolism.

When we talk about metabolism, we refer to the way the body breaks down the food we eat into glucose.

This process is necessary for the daily energy and also growth of the body. When a person has diabetes, it means that either he has a blood sugar that is high or his body fails to generate enough insulin.

Alternatively a person could have diabetes because the body cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This results to so much glucose being retained in the blood stream.

For people with type 1 diabetes, it is common for them to lose weight even without making any attempt. This is because in type 1, the pancreas will stop producing any insulin perhaps due to an attack on the pancreas cells. This makes the body to search desperately for a source of energy as the body cells don’t have any glucose.

This makes the body to begin to metabolize the body fats and also tissues in order to get energy.

A common symptom of diabetes is weakness and a feeling of fatigue. This is usually caused by a lack of insulin in the body cells as it stays in the blood stream. This makes the cells to be starved of energy and therefore makes the body feels weak and fatigued. The person may also experience a feeling of numbness in the hand or even feet. This is usually the case in type 2 diabetes as people may not be aware that they have the disease. This makes the blood sugar to stay high for a few years before a diagnosis can be done.

This can cause nerve destruction to occur without the knowledge of the person.

Another common symptom of diabetes affects the vision. Due to the high blood sugar, fluids are pulled from the body tissues. These include in the lenses and this affects the ability of the person to focus. Also when left untreated, the disease can cause the formation of blood vessels in the retina. The disease can also cause the damage of the eye vessels.

Though in most cases this does not create a problem in the early stages, later it may even lead to blindness if left untreated

There are mainly two types of diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body fails to produce enough insulin. This raises the need for a person to keep on injecting insulin into the body stream. The disease may occur at any age and its exact cause is unknown. In most cases, the disease is diagnosed in children, teens and young adults. It is thought to be an autoimmune problem which can be passed down through families. Either due to some infections or triggers, the cells in the pancreas is attacked making them not to produce insulin.

Therefore type 1 diabetes is marked by glucose building up in the bloodstream rather than them getting into the cells.

Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. This is a lifelong chronic disease which is marked by a high level of glucose in the blood stream.

People with type 2 diabetes have their fat, muscle cells and liver not responding right to insulin. This is commonly known as insulin resistance.

Therefore these people have their blood sugar not getting into the cells to be kept for the production of energy. Where sugar is denied entry into the cells, there is a build up in the blood, a condition that is known as hyperglycemia. This type of diabetes happens slowly over time. When getting diagnosed, most individuals having the disease are usually overweight.

This is because it is harder for insulin to be used correctly where there is increased fat.

However this does not mean that diabetes cannot occur in people who are thin. It does occur especially in people who are elderly. One factor that has been noted to be a cause of type 2 diabetes is the family history and the genetic composition.

Also the lifestyle of the person plays a role. People who have a poor diet or exercise rarely have a higher risk of getting the disease.

Also people who have excess weight of the body around the wrist are at a higher risk of contracting the disease.

Gestational diabetes is usually diagnosed during pregnancies. It is usually caused by the pregnancy hormones blocking the insulin from doing its work.

This causes the glucose level to rise in the woman’s blood stream. There are people who are at a greater risk of this kind of diabetes.

These include those who get pregnant when they are aged twenty five and above. Also people whose families have a history of diabetes are at a greater risk of getting gestational diabetes.

The same case applies to people with a high blood pressure as well as those whose amniotic fluid is too much.


Women who are overweight before giving birth are also at a greater risk of the disease. The same case applies to those who have had miscarriages that are difficult to explain or even those who give birth to babies who have birth defects. If you are a woman and you give birth to a baby who weighs more than nine pounds, your risk of getting the gestational diabetes also increases. The disease in most cases starts when the pregnancy is in its midterm.

Therefore there is need for all women to undergo a test around the twenty fourth to the twenty eighth weeks of their pregnancies. For women who have risk factors for the disease, it is important for them to undergo the test earlier.

The disease can be managed well using a diabetes diet. This is a healthy eating plan that is aimed at controlling the blood sugar. The basic rule of this diet is sticking to a regular mealtime. Also the person should eat a variety of highly nutritious food in small amounts. The person who is suffering from the disease should engage in a healthy eating plan that emphasize on vegetables, wholegrain and fruits. The person should take more of the healthy carbohydrates. These include legumes such as beans, lentils and peas.

Some of the other foods that a diabetic person should take include foods that are rich in fibers. Some of these are nuts and vegetables. Whole wheat flour as well as wheat bran fall in this category. To cater for his protein need, the person can take fish at least twice a week. These are good alternative to the red meat.

Also there are some foods containing ‘good’ fat such as avocados, peanut oil which can help to lower the cholesterol level.

There are also some foods that a person suffering from the disease should avoid. These include saturated fat such as beef, margarine and any other cholesterol rich food.

Some of these foods which are rich in cholesterol include egg yolk, liver and any high fat dairy product. The person should also avoid sodium as much as possible.

When it occurs in children, it is known as juvenile diabetes. This is usually due to an environment triggers or even a virus which hampers the functioning of the beta cell.

This makes it impossible for the body to produce insulin. It has been noted that a child whose sibling have the condition is also likely to develop it more than those whose sibling do not suffer from it. In this condition pancreas does not carry out its role of producing the insulin and this makes the sugar to build up in the blood.

The sugar in fact overflows to the urine and is passed out of the body with urine before it can be used.  To manage this condition better, it is important for a diet to be adjusted according to the individual child’s need.

Both types of diabetes share similar signs. This is usually because in both cases, the disease is marked by too much sugar in the blood stream and glucose that is not enough in the body cells. One of the common warning signs of diabetes involves frequent visit to the washrooms. A person with any kind of diabetes will keep on urinating all day long. This is usually caused by too much sugar in the blood stream. Where the insulin does not exist or tend to be ineffective, it becomes impossible for the kidneys to filter back the glucose into the bloodstream. This makes the kidney to try and get some more water from the blood in order to have the glucose diluted. This makes the bladder to stay full and makes the person to keep going to the washrooms.

Another common sign of diabetes is unquenchable thirst. Where you feel as if you can’t get enough of water, it is most likely a symptom of diabetes.

This is especially the case where it is accompanied by frequent urination. This is because a person usually gets dehydrated due to the need to replace the extra water that is being pulled out of the blood. This raises the need to replace this water.

There are other common sign and symptoms that you should look out for. These may include a skin that is itchy or even dry. Also the skin may become prone to infections. The skin also may get bruised more frequently and take time to heal. Therefore in conclusion, it is important for people who show the above signs and symptoms to go for tests so that the disease may be diagnosed early for easy management.

The Benefits Of Yoga For Physical Fitness

What are the benefits of yoga for physical fitness?

If you’ve ever attended a yoga class, you are well familiar with the blissful emotional benefits of regular yoga practice.

Whenever I step out of a yoga class I feel so relaxed and serene. It’s almost the same feeling that you have when you’ve come back from holiday.


But did you know that yoga also has numerous physical benefits? Recent research shows that yoga may also improve muscular strength, lung capacity and aerobic capacity – 3 of the main indicators of physical fitness.

The benefits of yoga for physical fitness

Yoga is very beneficial for your physical fitness levels. Not only does it reduce stress levels, but it also makes your whole body fitter and ensures longevity.


In a recent study, the University of California at Davis tested the muscular strength,cardiorespiratory fitness and lung function of students after 8 weeks of regular yoga practise.


After 8 weeks the student’s muscular strength increased by 31%, flexibility by 188% and VO2max by 7%. This just proves that yoga is very beneficial for increasing physical fitness levels.

Yoga can increase your respiratory fitness levels

What is respiratory fitness?

Respiratory fitness refers to the fitness of your heart, lungs and blood vessels.

The better your respiratory fitness levels, the lower your risk for numerous diseases like heart diseases, cancer and diabetes.


It’s measured by your VO2max (maximum oxygen intake), a technical term that indicates how efficiently oxygen enters your lungs and is used by your muscles. The more fit you are, the more efficiently your body transports and uses oxygen.

The evidence and benefit

A recent study done at the Ball State University looked at how 15 weeks of twice-weekly yoga classes affected the lung capacity of 287 college students. At the end of the students all of the students involved, including athletes, asthmatics, and smokers showed a significant improvement in lung capacity by the end of the study.


Yoga poses may increase your lung capacity by improving the flexibility of your rib area,back and  shoulders, allowing your lungs to expand more efficiently. Correct yoga breathwork may further boost your lung capacity and VO2max; making it very important for you to also practise breathing.

Regular Yoga sessions may improve your muscular strength

What is muscular fitness?

Your muscular fitness levels refers to your muscular strength (how heavy and object you can lift) and muscular endurance (for how long you can lift it). Increased muscular fitness increases your balance and coordination and keeps your body strong and fit.

The evidence and benefit

Many yoga poses, particularly standing poses, inversions and balancing poses builds a lot of strength because they require sustained contractions of many large and small muscles. And many of the poses are hold for an increased time which increases this training effect. I’ve also seen the proof of this benefit in my own yoga practise. The more I practise yoga, the longer I am able to hold a pose and with less effort.

Yoga is very effective for increasing flexibility and balance

What is flexibility fitness?

Flexibility is an important indicator of your fitness levels and health. It increases your range of motion, lengthens your muscles and prevent stiffness of connective tissue. Increased flexibility promotes optimal movement of your knees, shoulders, elbows, spine and other joints. Loss of flexibility is often associated with an increased risk of injury and pain.

The evidence and benefit

Yoga stretches the muscles and is excellent for increasing your flexibility. As an added benefit, your muscles responds to stretching by becoming larger and capable of extracting more oxygen. This lead to increased muscle strength and endurance.


As you can see, yoga holds many more benefits than just stress release. To fully benefit from these benefits and to increase your fitness levels, make sure that you take a regular yoga class at least twice a week. Look for classes that includes a balance of poses along with breath work and meditation for maximum benefit. I particularly prefer Iyengar yoga as it’s a nice mixed balance of yoga poses, breath work and meditation.